“Don’t Spend Your Money Where You Can’t Work”: WPA Document by Black Radio Pioneer Richard Durham

Over the coming months, I plan to post several important WPA documents that were not included in The Negro in Illinois: The WPA Papers, but will be of interest to scholars and the public. For the first time, Richard Durham’s essay, “Don’t Spend Your Money Where You Can’t Work” is made available here.

To read it click here: WPA documents Richard Durham Don’t Spend.

DurhamRichard Durham was a pioneering radio writer, best known for his series Destination Freedom, a radio program dramatizing African American history broadcast on WMAQ in Chicago from 1948 to 1950. He was blacklisted in the radio industry during the 1950s, and worked as a union organizer with the United Packinghouse Workers of America. When Elijah Muhammad started his newspaper Muhammad Speaks, he hired Durham as one of its first editors. Durham met Muhammad Ali through the Nation of Islam and helped the boxer write his 1975 autobiography The Greatest: My Own Story. Sonja Williams, professor at Howard University is soon to publish a book on this important black cultural worker titled Destined for Freedom: The Life and Times of Radio Hall of Famer Richard Durham (University of Illinois Press).

Before making his mark in radio, Durham got his start on the Illinois Writers’ Project. He first worked on a study of the black press headed by Horace Cayton, author of the landmark sociology Black Metropolis. In early 1939, Durham joined the WPA and recorded surveys of black newspapers. According to an outline, “Don’t Spend Your Money Where You Can’t Work” was one of ten chapters for an unpublished book on the black press. While the essay is not dated, it was probably written in the late spring of 1939. Soon after, Durham was transferred to the Illinois Radio Project, where he met Oscar Brown, Jr. and Studs Terkel, and it was here that he discovered his love for radio.

Click on picture for larger image.

Click on picture for larger image.

This 29-page essay takes its title, of course, from the “Don’t Spend Your Money Where You Can’t Work,” campaign led by the Chicago Whip from 1929 to 1932. Durham uses this as an opener to talk about the fight against job discrimination. He quotes extensively from the Whip, Chicago Defender, and Anthony Overton’s Chicago Bee. Durham looks at coverage in the black press of A. Philip Randolph’s Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the rise of the CIO, and the growing interest in Communism.

The original version of this essay can be found in The Illinois Writers’ Project/”Negro in Illinois” Papers (Box 41, folder 7) at the Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature. What is attached here is a scanned image of a photocopy. Readers may find some interest in the editorial comments, although it is not clear whose handwriting it is in (Arna Bontemps, editor of The Negro in Illinois, was not hired on the WPA until late 1939). For example, on page 28 a critical comment by Durham was crossed out:

“Truly, the search for democracy in the ‘land of the free’ is a long and weary one.”

This reflects some of the censorship that undoubtedly took place on the project, most likely to avoid gaining the attention of those wishing to paint the WPA’s cultural projects as infiltrated by Communists.

In fact, the WPA’s detractors were not entirely wrong. It was during these years that Richard Durham was a member of the Communist Party and involved in the activities at the local office of the National Negro Congress, where he met his wife Clarice Durham. This is reflected in the heavily Marxist tone of the essay. “The most telling and detrimental form of discrimination,” Durham states at the outset, “is economic discrimination.”

Enjoy reading! BD

Back in Chicago: Upcoming Talk at Revolution Books

ISHS picOn Saturday, April 26, 2-4 p.m., I’ll be at Revolution Books, located at 1103 N. Ashland Ave., near the Polish Triangle in Chicago. I’ll be giving a talk called “Radicals on Relief” looking at the politics of The Negro in Illinois, as many of those who were on the WPA like Richard Wright, Margaret Walker, Richard Durham, and Jack Conroy were members of or close to the Communist Party while working on the project. As I will show, sometimes they engaged in self-censorship, and other times they injected political commentary into their writings. To join the Facebook page for the event go here. There will be a book signing afterwards. Thanks to Revolution Books for hosting this event.

Earlier in April, I was the keynote speaker (pictured above) at a banquet for this year’s symposium of the Illinois State Historical Society held at Eastern Illinois University in Charleston. I was quoted in the local newspaper about the legacy of Edward Coles, after whom Coles County, where Charleston is located, was named. Coles is known as the second governor who ensured that Illinois remain a free state.

GwendolynBrooksThose following this blog might also be interested in this event on April 24 welcoming the papers of Gwendolyn Brooks at the Rare Book & Manuscript Library at UIUC with Chicago poet Haki Madhubuti, whose Third World Press began publishing Brooks’s poetry in the 1960s, and local poet Janice Harrington.


“History Symposium Looks at Variety of Civil War Topics, Related Issues and More”

By Dave Fopay, Journal Gazette & Times Courier, March 28, 2014

CHARLESTON — The Illinois State Historical Society’s annual symposium is supposed to a combination of topics, who presents them and who might be interested in them, according to one of the organization’s officials.

That seemed to fit well with Brian Dolinar, who served as the keynote speaker during the banquet at this year’s symposium. He said he was also interested in what others had to say and to learn more about a local historical event at the same time.

“All these people have this great knowledge of Illinois History,” Dolinar said Friday. “It’s been a real lesson for me.”

This year’s symposium took place at Eastern Illinois University’s Booth Library. The historical society announced a year ago that the event would be in Charleston in conjunction with this weekend’s commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the Charleston Riot.

Several activities are planned for today and Sunday for the commemoration of the March 28, 1864, fight in Charleston between Union soldiers and a group of Copperheads, those who opposed the war.

During more than a dozen sessions Thursday and Friday, presenters covered topics directly related to the Civil War but also many related subjects.

During the symposium, Dolinar, a member of the University of Illinois faculty, spoke about his research on a history of African Americans in Illinois compiled by those in the WPA, one of the New Deal programs of the Great Depression.

He said that covered history from before the Civil War, to Reconstruction and after. He shared some history of the Undergound Railroad’s activities in the state and related that there were slave owners in Illinois, mostly in southern mining regions.

But Dolinar also said he “talked at length” about Edward Coles, the second governor of Illinois, for whom Coles County is named. Coles worked against slavery and defended the rights of former slaves, Dolinar noted.

“Edward Coles is largely the reason Illinois remained a free state,” he said.

The symposium is different than other academic conferences that are “kind of closed shops,” Russell Lewis, the historical society’s president, said Friday.

“What’s great about it is it’s open,” he said. “It’s a mix of scholars, history buffs and the general public.”

This year’s event focused on Civil War topics but in a variety of ways because the symposium should address a certain interest but not be too limited, Lewis also said.

“If it’s too narrow, we’re not going to get as many speakers,” he said. “If we can make a connection, it really resonates with people.”

Lewis said another of the historical society’s goals with the symposium is to try to show how events from history can be put in perspective with current problems.

“We don’t live in the past,” he said.

Marching Forward into Spring!

Dolinar UFLThis month, I’m marching into Spring with two events where I’ll be talking about The Negro in Illinois: The WPA Papers. I’ll be at Figure One in downtown Champaign on Thursday, March 20, 6:00-7:00 p.m. The talk is part of an exhibition called Social Habitat: The Porch Project by Brooklyn-based artist Heather Hart. Figure One is UIUC’s School of Art & Design exhibition space at 116 N. Walnut Street in downtown (south of the Blind Pig). I’m thankful to Rehema Barber for the invitation.

IL_history_web4I’ll also be a guest speaker at the Thursday night banquet for the 2014 Illinois State Historical Society Symposium titled “The Civil War Part III: Copperheads, Contraband and the Rebirth of Freedom.” It will be held at Booth Library at Eastern Illinois University. I’ll be speaking Thursday, March 27, 2014 at 8:00 p.m. after dinner. To register go here. To see the entire list of events click ISHS symposium program.

Thanks to the Urbana Free Library for hosting a wonderful book talk on February 15 that was well attended and where I sold out of books. In the above photo I talk about the legacy of Ishmael Flory, whose appearance at a 1940 congressional hearing was cited by WPA workers in The Negro in Illinois.

You can also listen here to an hour-long interview I did in February on Illinois Public Media WILL’s “Focus.”

What’s Happening in 2014!!

BD MLALast year, 2013, was a great year, largely due to the long-awaited publication of The Negro in Illinois: The WPA Papers. This coming year, 2014, promises to be as exciting as I continue to promote the book.

BD MLA panelAt the MLA conference, this year in Chicago, I was on two panels―one on Red Chicago, and one on Black Chicago. The latter panel was sponsored by the Black American Literature and Culture Division. I talked about the collection of African American folklore by black WPA writers Katherine Dunham, Robert Lucas, and Onah Spencer. I was joined on the panel by two veterans in the field, R. Baxter Miller and John Edgar Tidwell, as well as Lauren Gantz, a grad student at UT Austin. You can see photos from the panel by poet/scholar Aldon Nielsen at his blog Heat String Theory.

I also visited the University of Illinois Press table at the book exhibit where I got a photo with my book in front of a poster for The Negro in Illinois.

Local Book Talks

I have two book talks coming up locally. On January 25, I’ve been invited to an event in Champaign, Hallways Microcinema Vol. 3, called “Alternative Histories of Black Music. I will be giving a presentation titled, “Playing Second Trumpet in the Second City: Black Chicago Jazz.” It will be followed by screening of the documentary film, A Band Called Death.

Hallways MicrocinemaFor Black History Month, I will be giving a book talk at Urbana Free Library on Saturday, February 15 at 2 p.m. Among other things, I will be talking about mention of Champaign-Urbana and the University of Illinois in The Negro in Illinois.

To promote the UFL event, I’ll be appearing on the “Labor Hour,” Saturday, February 1, 11 a.m. to noon, on WEFT 90.1 FM, with David Johnson and crew. On Wednesday, February 12, 2-3 p.m., I will be a guest on “ACCESS Live,” WBCP 1580 AM, with Imani Bazzell.

Stay tuned for other talks at the Illinois State Historical Society symposium in March, and Mather Café at 83rd Street in Chicago in April.

The Woodson Branch of the Chicago Public Library Shines a Spotlight on “The Negro in Illinois”

Woodson book event

On Saturday, September 28, the Carter G. Woodson Regional branch of The Chicago Public Library was the site of a celebration of the publication of The Negro in Illinois. The event included a panel discussion with scholars including the book’s editor, Brian Dolinar.

A distinguished panel of scholars of African American History spoke at the event:Darlene Clark Hine (Northwestern), Adam Green (University of Chicago), and Christopher Reed (Roosevelt). The event was taped and aired on C-SPAN’s Book TV. It can be viewed online here.

The location of the event was appropriate due to the library’s close ties to the project.  The Negro in Illinois was initially produced by a special division of the Illinois Writers Project, one of President Roosevelt’s WPA programs. It was researched by a team of more than 100 writers, activists and scholars, including Richard Wright, Margaret Walker, Katherine Dunham, and Richard Durham. Beginning with Jean Baptiste Point DuSable, and tracing Illinois Black history and culture through more than 150 years, this study was unprecedented.

The project went dormant and unpublished as the WPA was closed down with U.S. entry into World War II. The research materials and many book chapters were given to Vivian G. Harsh, founder of the Chicago Public Library collection, housed at the Woodson Regional Library.

Pictured, from L to R:  Michael Flug, Adam Green, Brian Dolinar and Christopher Reed.  Not pictured here, but present at the event and speaking on the panel, was Darlene Clark Hine.

At Fundraiser for the Vivian G. Harsh Society

Harshfundraiser 044On Sunday, September 22, 2013, I participated in a panel discussion, “Rethinking the Black Chicago Renaissance,” with Richard Courage, Sonja Michelle Y. Gordon, and Sonja Williams. The event was a fundraiser for the Vivian G. Harsh Society. Here we are with a portrait of Vivian G. Harsh that hangs on the walls of the collection than now bears her name, the Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature.

“The Negro in Illinois” Featured in the Chicago Tribune

A book that binds black history in Illinois

Historical volume was more than 70 years in the making

Dawn Turner Trice, September 8, 2013

Brian Dolinar’s new book, “The Negro in Illinois: The WPA Papers,” was released this summer, and if the title sounds dated it’s because the book began its long road to publication in the late 1930s but was sidelined by two formidable obstacles — World War II and a rejection letter.

How Dolinar came to complete the book is a story of a nearly decade-long effort to do justice to work started by a team of more than 100 African-American writers hired to document black life and history for one of President Franklin Roosevelt’s Works Progress Administration programs.

To recreate the manuscript, Dolinar searched for missing chapters across several states and painstakingly sifted through more than 10,000 pages of documents typed on cheap paper that at one point had been disintegrating.

Some of the original writers, such as Richard Wright, would go on to great acclaim. And because many of them were novelists and poets, their writing style wasn’t at all dry but literary as they wrote about a variety of issues and people, including entertainers like Louis Armstrong; a young Nation of Islam; President Abraham Lincoln’s Haitian-born barber; and an entrepreneur whose chicken shack later would be featured in Wright’s “Native Son.”

“As a scholar of African-American literature during the Depression, this (project) just jumped out at me,” said Dolinar, 41, who has a doctorate in cultural studies and is the book’s editor. “This was one of the earliest examinations of black life in Illinois, and it’s comprehensive and a fascinating achievement.”

In the 1930s, as part of the WPA’s Federal Writers’ Project, each of the then-48 states was putting together books detailing all aspects of life within its borders.

Information about African-Americans initially had been excluded until blacks protested, and President Roosevelt appointed Sterling Brown, one of the most famous black poets and writers of that time, to supervise efforts depicting black life in 17 states.

To head up the Illinois project, Brown paired Arna Bontemps, a black Harlem Renaissance writer, with Jack Conroy, a well-known white writer and radical.

They in turn assembled scores of writers, including Wright, Margaret Walker, Katherine Dunham, Frank Yerby and Fenton Johnson, and had them fan out across the state gathering information on blacks from the time of Chicago’s first non-native settler, Jean Baptiste Pointe DuSable, to the early 1940s.

Michael Flug is senior archivist for the Harsh Archival Processing Project at the Chicago Public Library’s Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection on the South Side.

“The (writers) scoured old newspapers and they did interviews,” said Flug. “They went through courthouse records. They studied music, art, politics, the movement for the abolition of slavery, the military, black businesses, sports, housing. It was incredibly comprehensive.”

Bontemps and Conroy took the material and had begun writing draft chapters when America joined the war in 1941. Shortly afterward, Roosevelt ended all of the book projects.

Bontemps left Chicago to become a librarian at Fisk University. Flug said Bontemps gave the material to Vivian G. Harsh, then the head librarian at the George Cleveland Hall Branch Library, where Bontemps had written and done research.

“He and Conroy continued writing the book, and in 1943, they submitted the 29-chapter manuscript to a publisher,” said Flug. “But it was rejected and remained unpublished.”

By the 1960s, the collection was being recognized as one of the country’s foremost examinations of black life up through the New Deal era and was being used regularly by researchers. But over the years, chapters from the manuscript disappeared. Some of the documents, typed on cheap railroad manila paper, began to melt away or went missing.

After a massive effort by Harsh archivists to save the documents (by having them encased in Mylar sleeves) and to organize them, Flug tried to revive the book project. From 1992 to 2004, he asked five scholars to take it on. Not one agreed.

“It was an enormous task, and I was looking for somebody willing to do something insane,” said Flug.

On a fall day in 2004, Dolinar visited the Harsh Collection — housed at the Carter G. Woodson Regional Library since the 1970s — to research the ways Bontemps and his close friend Langston Hughes had tried to reach a wider audience. Flug directed Dolinar to “The Negro in Illinois” collection and once again told its story.

Dolinar believed the project would be like unraveling a mystery, and he was intrigued by the stories and the lives of the storytellers. He also had just completed a book and was looking for another. Over the years, he searched for the missing pieces at libraries, archives and universities in Chicago, Springfield, Washington and New York.

“Then there was the process of going through the manuscript,” said Dolinar, who lives in Urbana. “Some chapters had two or three authors, and I had to identify the most recent versions of the texts and edit them down.”

He said there were also contradictions that had to be reconciled and re-researched, and editor’s notes that had to be written at the beginning of chapters to explain it all.

Flug said that today, “The Negro in Illinois” collection of documents remains popular and is often used to learn about the Black Chicago Renaissance.

“And now this treasure trove is finally in a book,” said Flug. “In my long career as an archivist, I’ve never done anything that resulted in the publication of a book that I’ve felt better about than this.”

On Sept. 28, Dolinar will join other scholars of African-American history in a panel discussion about the collection and the book, published by the University of Illinois Press, at 1:30 p.m. at the Woodson library.

Sept. 28: Celebration for Publication of “The Negro in Illinois” at Woodson Library

On Saturday, Sept. 28, at 1:30 p.m., we will be holding a celebration for the publication of The Negro in Illinois at the Carter G. Woodson Regional Branch of the Chicago Public Library (95th and Halsted). It is Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection, located at the Woodson library, which holds most of the WPA papers that make up The Negro in Illinois.


Women of the Du Sable Memorial Society, 1933

I will be joined by a distinguished panel of scholars of African American History:

Darlene Clark Hine is Board of Trustees Professor of African American Studies and Professor of History at Northwestern University. She is past president of the Organization of American History, and co-editor of The Black Chicago Renaissance.

Christopher R. Reed is Professor Emeritus of History at Roosevelt University and author of Black Chicago’s First Century, 1833-1900 and The Rise of Chicago’s Black Metropolis, 1920-1929.

Adam P. Green is Associate Professor of American History and Master, Social Sciences Collegiate Division, at University of Chicago. He is the author of Selling the Race: Culture and Community in Black Chicago, 1940-1955.

Copies of the book will be available for sale. Book signing after the program.
Program co-sponsors:  Vivian G. Harsh Society, South Side Community Art Center, Black Chicago History Forum

Lost Manuscript of the Black Chicago Renaissance “The Negro in Illinois” is Out Now!

Negro in IllinoisThe Negro in Illinois: The WPA Papers (University of Illinois Press)

Edited by Brian Dolinar

An extraordinary document of the African American experience

A major document of African American participation in the struggles of the Depression, The Negro in Illinois, was produced by a special division of the Illinois Writers’ Project, one of President Roosevelt’s Works Progress Administration programs. The Federal Writers’ Project helped to sustain “New Negro” artists during the 1930s and gave them a newfound social consciousness that is reflected in their writing.

Headed by Harlem Renaissance poet Arna Bontemps and white proletarian writer Jack Conroy, The Negro in Illinois employed major black writers living in Chicago during the 1930s, including Richard Wright, Margaret Walker, Katherine Dunham, Fenton Johnson, Frank Yerby, and Richard Durham. The authors chronicled the African American experience in Illinois from the beginnings of slavery to Lincoln’s emancipation and the Great Migration, with individual chapters discussing various aspects of public and domestic life, recreation, politics, religion, literature, and performing arts. After the project was canceled in 1942, most of the writings went unpublished for more than half a century–until now.

Working closely with archivist Michael Flug to select and organize the book, editor Brian Dolinar compiled The Negro in Illinois from papers at the Vivian G. Harsh Collection of Afro-American History and Literature at the Carter G. Woodson Library in Chicago. Dolinar provides an informative introduction and epilogue which explain the origins of the project and place it in the context of the Black Chicago Renaissance. Making available an invaluable perspective on African American life, this volume represents a publication of immense historical and literary importance.

A section of The Negro in Illinois can be read at Google Books.

Early Praise for The Negro in Illinois

“For decades, scholars and enthusiasts of the Black Midwest have lamented the abortive end to the WPA’s The Negro in Illinois project, the most ambitious New Deal study of African American life and history.  Now this treasure can enjoy the wide readership it always deserved.  Working with the Harsh Research Collection and other archives across the country, editor Brian Dolinar has located all twenty-nine chapters of the original survey, written by the cream of the Chicago Renaissance generation, and supplemented their work with illuminating and helpful annotation.   The result is equal parts epic, elegy and captivating ledger of the contributions and circumstances of African Americans in Illinois, from frontier and slavery days to the emergence of the Black Metropolis.  This volume is testament to the extraordinary capacities of African Americans in Chicago and Illinois, and to how their story encapsulates that of a nation.”

Adam Green, author of Selling the Race: Culture, Community, and Black Chicago, 1940-1955

“Brian Dolinar’s efforts are impressive along two scholarly fronts. He has presented a first-class introduction to the monumental New Deal Era’s writing project to preserve black Chicago’s history and culture that was embodied in the research and writings of Arna Bontemps, Jack Conroy, Richard Wright, Margaret Walker and others. Then, he has untiringly resurrected all 29 chapters of the historic Illinois Writers’ Project labeled The Negro in Illinois, providing posterity with long sought-after meanings of things past in the vaunted Black Metropolis of the early twentieth century.”

Christopher Robert Reed, author of The Rise of Chicago’s Black Metropolis, 1920-1929

“An exciting act of scholarly recovery. The Negro in Illinois papers, at long last available, are an invaluable guide to the role of American writers in crafting one of the first composite narratives of African American life. This dynamic volume shows us history from below in the making and being made.”

Bill V. Mullen, coeditor of Afro Asia: Revolutionary Political and Cultural Connections between African Americans and Asian Americans

“This landmark study provides a unique window onto the work of the Illinois unit of the Federal Writers’ Project. A commendable work of historical recovery.”

Richard Courage, coauthor of The Muse in Bronzeville: African American Creative Expression in Chicago, 1932-1950

“Dark Days”: Lost Novel of the Black Chicago Renaissance Released

(From left to right) Christopher Reed, Mrs. Jones, Dewey Roscoe Jones II, Richard Courage

(From left to right) Christopher Reed, Mrs. Jones, Dewey Roscoe Jones II, Richard Courage

On June 15, a panel was organized by the Black Chicago History Forum to launch the publication of Dewey Jones’ novel Dark Days: A Tale of Love Along the Color Line. Jones was a journalist and longtime book reviewer for the Chicago Defender. Written in 1935, the novel was self-published by Dewey Roscoe Jones II, who spoke about his father’s life. Literary scholar Richard Courage put Dewey Jones and his novel in the context of other works of African American literature from the 1920s and 1930s. This event marked the publication of one of the lost novels of the Black Chicago Renaissance. I bought a copy, had it signed, and it’s on my summer reading list.

Dark Days 004